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5G technology has an important role in improving the surveillance of analysis of the dynamics of LST co-ordinates on SE devices.

In dense human clusters such as cities and transport corridors 5G can easily identify and maintain the separation of LST datastreams from individual SE devices.

Contract tracing is a system to identify instances of coincidence of locational states of identified moving objects. Coincidence indicates that their time-space coordinates are identical at a specific point in time. The actual specification metrics of identical coordinates is governed by the size of the objects, the precision of LST measurements and the paramaters of the specific application.

Automated tracing and follow up

Contact tracing using unobtrusive simple state-of-the-art components can provide a sound coverge of a population. A centralised online database can record the traces on each identified sensor emitter (SE) and identify LST coincidences of more than a pre-establshed time threshold duration or without the timing theshold. If each SE ID is associated with a contact access such as email, telephone or mobile these follow up contacts can be automated.

Infections that are passed between animals and human beings often require physical proximity for transmission. The transmisson media for the infecting agent (innoculum potential) is often airways carrying atomised water droplets within which the agent, such as a virus or bateria, is present. The probability of transmission usually depends upon the distance between objects. Therefore for the contact tracing to be feasible the system developed needs to possess a distance resolution to enable the measurement of the distances between objects and the duration of the period of proximity. In other cases the actual distance is less critical when the system is operating on the basis of coincidence alone. In reality proximity as an indicator of transmission is inexact because it depends on the comportment of objects and any barriers to transmission (screens or masks). For practical purposes the simple proximity based on the coincidence of LST variables is sufficient to record "possibility of infection". On the iother hand a terrain object map can be used to locate service barriers such as screens. Unfortunately masks depend on individuals confiming to requirements but also by enforcement in different locations such as commercial premises.

A very low cost system can be built using isolated GPS tracers and radio frequency tabs and receptors (sensor-emitters). This can avoid createing a situation where people are required to possess touch screen mobile phones. The GPS tracers are very small and can be fixed onto keyrings or placed in pockets, bags or other objects as "wearables" carried or worn by a person.

Compared with a mobile touch screen telephone the SE solution is something like 15-20% of the cost making use of state-of-the-art components such as mobile telephones. The reccommended database would be an Acculumog which which can handle millions of distinct database LST records.

1  SEEL is now a systems development division of the George Boole Foundation Limited